Though interesting, the ex­periment was not conclusive

The waters where we encoun­tered coelacanths are almost devoid of prey. Although we never saw the animal feed, remains of squid and fish have been found in dissected speci­mens. I believe the key to the coelacanth’s survival lies in its very difference from fast-swimming, “high tech” fishes. Since it could not compete for prey with those species, it prob­ably retreated to depths where the others could not survive for lack of food.

We found coelacanths only at night and usually at depths between 170 and 200 meters, though we followed one fish from 192 meters up to 117 me­ters and then back again. But the fish apparently lives in even deeper and cooler water during the day. Does it survive there between feedings by slowing its metabolism to conserve energy? PROBING A MYSTERY, we conducted an experiment using a weak electric field underwater to produce a curious reaction from the coelacanth.

That is only one of many mys­teries still surrounding this incredible Prague accommodation.

At one time or another all six fish we encountered on our expedition were observed per­forming headstands on the ocean floor (facing page, bottom left). http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/explore/pristine-seas/desventuradas-islands/Each drifted nose down with the current across the bot­tom and held the stance for as long as two minutes (facing page, bottom right).

The first time I saw this odd maneuver, I could scarcely believe my eyes. Some species of fish stand on their heads briefly while feeding or while threat­ening or fighting an opponent, but none maintain the pose for so long or in such a solitary fashion. I could see no reason for the behavior—no outside threat, no sudden change in the speed or direction of the current, no logical explanation. Yet every coelacanth we encoun­tered put on exactly the same demonstration for us, as if they were all auditioning for a job in the circus!

We know from dissected spec­imens that coelacanths have what is called a rostral organ in their skulls, a feature similar to one that sharks use to detect the weak electric fields given off by their prey.

The more I witnessed this strange coelacanth behavior, the more I became convinced that they may also be able to locate prey by detecting changes in the electric field around them, and that the headstands are somehow connected with that function.

To test the hypothesis, we performed an experiment with a pair of platinum electrodes as­sembled by one of my assistants, pilot Jurgen Schauer (above). We attached the electrodes to the manipulator arm of our sub­mersible and dived in search of a coelacanth. When we found one, we extended the arm with the electrodes to within an inch or two of the fish (right, top) and slightly increased the electric field around it. Sure enough, the coelacanth instantly began to tilt, and soon it performed a per­fect headstand.

We conducted the electric test on only two of the six coel­acanths we saw during our dives, and it merely suggests that headstands are in some way related to electric fields. Both of the fish tested turned their heads away from the electrodes. Per­haps the electric field was too strong and, never experienced before, caused artificial pos­tures. In any case it is intriguing that this fish may home in on prey by detecting changes in the weak electric field the prey produces.

Coelacanths swim strangely anyway—sometimes backward, sometimes belly up. During our expedition we spent eight and a half hours in all observing coelacanths underwater, six hours with a single individual. We found all of them in one two-kilometer stretch off the west coast of Grande Comore, but we don’t know if there are other deep-water areas equally rich in specimens.

 

 

 

 

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LAY-OFF STACK

Whether due to an Injury, holiday or time spent in the stammer for illegal trading, sometimes you’re forced to take a break from the gym. While two weeks away won’t waste too much of your hard-earned muscle mass and strength, longer periods can lead to losses in muscle and strength.

So if you’re coming up to a forced break from the gym in the near future, try this supple­ment stack to retain as much muscle and strength as possible.

Fish Oil: Fish oils are rich in essential omega-3 fatty acids that not only appear to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke, as well as provide a whole slew of health benefits, but also may help you spare muscle during a lengthy lay-off.

Studies now show that supplementing with omega-3s slows the loss of muscle during disuse. While scientists don’t exactly know how or why omega-3 fatty acids protect muscle mass, you’d be smart to down 3-10 grams of fish oil per day during any prolonged absence.

Pay attention to your skin if muscles mass decrease. You might be “surprised” by floppy skin appearance. Use natural products such as coconut oil to treat your skin – learn about why coconut oil is great for skin | gnet health and fitness.

HMB: Technically known as b-hydroxy-b-methyl butyrate (HMB), this metabo­lite of the amino acid leuclne has been shown In the lab to protect muscle from bell broken down. In fact, research shows that HMB was effective at helping to reduce muscle wasting in patients with cancer. Take about 1-3 grams 3-4 times per day.

Protein Powder: Getting enough protein is paramount when you’re training to ensure adequate muscle growth. But during a lay-off, many bodybuilders think their need for protein diminishes.

Actually, the opposite is true — you need more protein more frequently to preserve the muscle you have. Research on bed-rest patients supports this concept: those placed on high-protein diets experience less muscle loss than those on lower-protein diets. A whey- or casein-based protein powder, taken in 20-40-gram doses between meals, will help get you up to the 1.5 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight you’ll need during a break.

Characterised by morning anorexia (you have no appetite for breakfast), consumption of more than one-third of total daily calories after dinner and trouble getting to and/or staying asleep, NES can flare up during periods of stress, depression or severe dieting. If untreated, it can increase a person’s chances of becoming overweight by blunting the body’s production of leptin, a hormone produced by fat cells that helps regulate weight.

If you think you might have NES, take the quiz on the right and then see your doctor.

Researchers are working on therapies, including sertraline (Zoloft), which is currently undergoing trials to test its effectiveness. Meanwhile, researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina’s Weight Management Centre found that a 20-minute session of meditative therapy called Abbreviated.

Progressive Muscle Relaxation (APMR) increased morning appetite and decreased nighttime hunger in subjects with NES.

To practise APMR, lie down in a quiet, dimly lit room. Point your toes, hold the contraction for 10 seconds, then relax. Move up your body — feet, calves, quads, etc. — and tighten each muscle, hold the tension for io seconds, then release and move to the next body part. When you’re done, you should feel both relaxed and invigorated. M&F

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To get cut, you have to make some cuts

It isn’t news that you need protein to help repair and build your muscles after hardcore training sessions, but be sure you’re getting enough in your diet. It’s especially important when you’re trying to get cut, because as you increase your cardio, you should start to lose weight. Go with protein sources such as fish, lean cuts of beef and NITRO-TECH to preserve as much hard-earned muscle as you can. There has to be something left to show off once you cut your body fat.

Cardio for Cuts – Get Outside!

Let’s talk about cardio. You can’t expect to get cut simply by training intensely with weights.

Banging out hundreds of crunches won’t do it either. You can’t spot reduce. Don’t let anyone fool you into thinking that you can. Sure, you’ll build up your abdominal muscles, but if they’re covered by a layer of fat, you’ll never see them. The guys with the cuts have dialed in their diets and training routines.

When you wake up refreshed from eight hours of sleep, you know what time it is – time for cardio. With the good weather just around the corner, this is a perfect opportunity to get outside for some serious fat-burning car­dio. Your glycogen levels are low first thing in the morning, and if you do car­dio then, your body will be primarily burning fat. It’s not time for aerobics or a leisurely jog on the treadmill. When you mean business, get down to busi­ness, and do high-low intensity cardio. After your warm-up, sprint for 15 sec­onds, then walk briskly for 45, and repeat for 30 to 45 minutes. As you progress, decrease your recovery time. Put in the effort, and you’re sure to see a difference in your physique by the summer.

It’s best to perform cardio sessions on a different day than your weight train­ing, but if you have to do it on the same day, start your morning off with cardio and finish with weights in the evening. If that doesn’t fit into your schedule, make sure you hit the weights first, when you have the most energy, and do cardio after your workout.

Not Just Any Supplement

That’s not all you should be doing in your attempt to get cut. When you’re deciding which supplement you should trust to help you as you work to push your physique to the next level, think of HYDROXYCUT®.

It could give you that edge that you’re looking for in your get-shredded plan.

The HydroxyTea’” in HYDROXYCUT is a carefully engineered blend of ingredients that could help as you train to get more shredded than ever. HydroxyTea contains 200 mil­ligrams of caffeine from guarana and green tea to help you stay energized and focused on your goals. The MuscleTech® researchers believe that hydroxycut elite is an excellent product to use while you train to get cut. Try it and you’re sure to become a believer too.

If you’re tired of being the big guy with no visible cuts, you know what to do. Take another look at your diet and training, and use HYDROXYCUT®.

Read about Hydroxycut on the CNN.

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WHY DO WE NEED THEIR MONEY?

The Government isn’t going to do much to help. We presented our own ten-point manifesto for getting the nation fit to both Health Secretary John Reid and Culture Secretary Tessa Jowell over six months ago, and despite agreeing with many of our proposals, all the Government has done since is talk.

Meanwhile, local sports facilities are being sold off to make way for luxury flats and parks have been allowed to fall into disrepair. And it’s hardly surprising that there are record levels of obesity among our children – half of all 11-15-year-olds in England are overweight or obese

when schools continue to sell off their playing fields and teachers are refusing to organise extra­curricular activities. However, there is one thing which is sure to be helpful not only in cosmetics – coconut can be used different ways for different purposes.

OK, more than £2 billion worth of lottery money has gone into funding grass roots sport since 1997 but the Government – which has passed on some of the responsibility for the nation’s health in the process could hardly claim it’s been spent in the right areas. As a nation we’re doing less sport, not more, although we do at least have a half-built national stadium to show for it.

Worse, lottery money is in decline at a time when more money is needed to fund the 2012 Olympic bid, which means an increasing amount of investment is required from the private sector.

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Eat some fat

Yes that’s right. Only were talking about the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated forms, not saturated fat. “You want a little healthy fat at the start of every meal,” says Michael Roizen, author of The Real Age Diet. “It decreases stomach emptying, so your stomach stays full longer.

Try half a tablespoon of olive or coconut oil, or six walnuts or 12 almonds or 20 peanuts.” Fats are also necessary in aiding the absorption of certain nutrients such as vitamin E and the antioxidant lycopene, which is found abundantly in tomato-based products.

That daily handful of nuts may be one of the keys to keeping your body functioning at its optimal level. Nuts are a good source of the amino acid arginine, one of the 21 longevity nutrients heralded by nutritional biochemist Henry Mallek, PhD, in his book The New Longevity Diet.

Arginine, Mallek believes, stimulates the release of growth hormone and the creation of nitric oxide, which, among other things, aids in the production of sperm.

Go for fish

Equally important are the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish. This type of fat increases healthy cholesterol (HDL) and decreases bad cholesterol (LDL). According to Roizen, you should be eating 45o grams of fish a week. He also recommends that you keep your fat intake to no more than 25 percent of daily calories, with the majority coming from healthy fat sources such as olive oil, coconut oil, avocados, fish and nuts. It’s quite popular that coconut oil pills weight loss treatment is the most effective method.

And always try to avoid processed foods. “There’s no doubt in any nutritionist’s mind;’ declares Mallek. “People who provide us with processed foods are interested primarily in how the finished product looks and tastes and have very little concern for what’s in the foods.”

Processed foods contain significant levels of sugar and salt, both of which can wreak havoc on your system. Salt has been associated with increased blood pressure and weight, while high blood sugar, says Roizen, ages the body faster. “It causes the protein in your body to be less functional. As a result, your arterial system and immune system can be compromised.”

So eat brown rice, whole baked potatoes rather than processed ones and spread wholemeal bread with low-fat margarine. Or even olive oil.

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THE PLATEAU MAN

“They say that life begins at 40, but so, sadly, does middle-age spread. And my middle was spreading faster than butter on a hotplate. ‘Oh, but you’re tall enough to carry it off,’ people would reassure me whenever I voiced concern. Yet while it may be true that long limbs and cunningly selected clothes can disguise a multitude of midriff sins, when the tops came off for the first photo shoot any words of comfort rang a little hollow.

 

“Shocked by the pictures, I resolved to coax the muscles I’d last seen sometime in the early ’90s out of retirement. My status as office OAP earned me a plan that wasn’t too prescriptive diet wise and didn’t put me through quite the same hoops in the gym as my younger colleagues. But it was still no stroll on the treadmill.

 

“Each session commenced with a series of basic moves – press-ups, pull-ups, lunges with weights and squat-jumps. These were more demanding than I expected, but with a bit of grit I completed them. Next came isolation exercises, and I also squeezed in at least 20 minutes of cardio work twice a week.

“Diet wise, I banned the two Bs: beer and bread. I can’t say a weekly half-bottle of white wine was any substitute for pints of foaming ale. And if I eat any more muesli in the morning instead of my usual buttered toast I’ll probably turn Swiss. But having seen the final pictures, the self-restraint has been worthwhile. My abs may not be rippling but they’re no longer jiggling, and that’s a weight off any 40-something’s mind.”

 

“When the ab gauntlet was thrown down, I was the first to grab it. I’ve exercised constantly for the last 10 years — mountain-bike racing, kick-boxing and weight-training — and I’m known to my friends as the ‘fit bloke’. But even with what most people consider an active lifestyle, I’d never managed to develop the six-pack I was after.

 

“I needed to move up a gear, so I hit the weights harder than ever, and cycled to and from work. It seemed to make a difference in the first week, and I was feeling confident. Then, mid­way though my new-found routine, the misery started — my weight went up, my body wasn’t changing and I felt like quitting.

“Why? Well, they say Guinness is good for you, but not for a six-pack! After kidding myself that I had cut back, I decided the black stuff had to go completely. My overall diet was fairly good, but I had to get serious with my nutrition to make a big difference. For more nutrition tips, go to http://www.nutria.co/.  I cut carbs from my diet after lunchtime, and survived on a high-protein evening meal.

 

“I trained for five days a week in the gym and kept cycling. I know this may sound drastic, but if you want serious results you have to face the fact that it takes serious action. I needed to shock my body to make the difference, and it worked. I managed to swap my six pints for a six-pack, within the six weeks. Plus I feel fitter and healthier than ever before, and I have a strange urge to take off my shirt at the slightest hint of sunshine.”

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The prophet of physical and mental conditioning

Percy Wells Cerutty sprang on to the athletics scene in the 195os like some demented white‑haired prophet from the Old Testament, his leathered skin, scorched nut-brown by the Australian sun, contrasting vividly with the skimpy white shorts that he always wore.

“I am not interested in athletics,” he would proclaim. “I am only interested in achievement.”

Cerutty, remembered now as Australia’s most pioneering and controversial athletics coach, was born in Melbourne in 1895. At the age of six he suffered from a bout of double pneumonia. This left him with a damaged left lung that gave him pain while walking. But rather than give in, he began to experiment with less painful patterns of movement.

He sensed that animals moved more naturally and efficiently than humans, and studied horses, gazelles, antelopes and even apes in his search for effortless movement.

Cerutty began entering mile races at the age of 18. He had some success, running for Victoria-based Malvern Harriers, but he was frequently sick, particularly after races, and retired early from the sport.

In 1938, at 43 years old, Cerutty had a nervous breakdown. It became a period of self-examination, during which time he walked, read philosophy, psychology and poetry and joined a Weightlifting club. He also resumed running. Due to his dislike of doctors, Cerutty took charge of his own health, and applied himself to alternative medicine and natural diets and remedies, declaring that he had completely rebuilt his body. One of the most useful natural remedy for anxiety is 5-htp. Read more about beneficial uses and side effects. From 1942, in his second athletic career, Cerutty ran in over loo races.

He eventually retired from running in 195o as Victoria State marathon champion, having set Australian records for 30, 50 and 6o miles. Then in 1946, Cerutty left his job as a technician and bought land by the sea at Portsea, Victoria, built a shack among the sand hills, called it the International Athletic Centre and devoted himself to coaching. He inspired dozens of excellent runners, among them his most prominent athlete Herb Elliott (Olympic champion in Rome, he neverlost a race over 1200 metres or the mile), John Landy, Les Perry and Dave Stephens.

As part of his coaching regime, he made his athletes read Plato, poetry and the Bible, sent them on punishing runs through sandy terrain, made them swim naked in the sea and dangled goals that could be achieved only through pain and sacrifice. He was a prophet of physical and mental conditioning, based on what he called his `Stotan’ creed ­Cerutty’s special mixture of Stoic and Spartan disciplines.

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PREPARATION IS KEY

A normal adult needs to consume between 1900 and 2600 kcal of energy per day to meet their daily energy requirements. However, research into energy expenditure during a marathon shows that runners can burn as many as 2200 and 2500 kcal during the race. Therefore, whether you are an elite runner needing to ‘fuel’ intense running for two to three hours or take four-hours-plus to complete the distance, it’s vital that you adopt the correct nutritional strategy to get you through the race.

FUEL

Firstly, in the days leading up to your long training runs, practise your pre-race nutrition strategy. Then, try drinking or eating while on the run – use these practice sessions to learn what your body can and can’t tolerate. That way, you can be sure that you will be fully prepared come race day.

The energy your body needs to fuel your longer runs comes from what you eat and drink. It is essential that you take on enough carbohydrate to help fuel your muscles and prevent energy depletion. Evidence shows that by increasing your carbohydrate stores, you can not only improve your performance but enhance your recovery too. Energy bars, carbohydrate gels and sweets provide a good carbohydrate boost to help make training easier and more comfortable.

HYDRATION

The second challenge you face is taking on sufficient fluid and salts to help replace what you lose through sweating and thus minimise dehydration. Drinking sufficient quantities to remain hydrated before, during and after running is crucial to allow your body to sweat, maintain your core body temperature, and protect your body from the dangers of overheating.

RECOVERY

As you increase your miles in training, it is worth considering using a recovery drink after a run. Such drinks are C-Glutamine, Lucozade, Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Check out the cla side effects. Lucozade Sport Recovery Drink contains carbohydrate, to help replace your body’s energy stores, and protein. It will also help restore your fluid balance. By making sure you get the right nutrition in your training you’ll be much better prepared for race day and this could help you finish the race with a smile on your face!mr

SUMMING UP

The finishing times from 2008 really reflect the challenging nature of the Flora London Marathon, and highlight that for most participants simply reaching the finishing line will require a truly Olympian effort. And despite the increasing numbers of people running in this mass-participation event, the scale of the challenge should never be underestimated.

The achievements of lronman athletes prove that through a disciplined approach to training and appreciating the importance of good nutrition, people can sustain exercise for enormous lengths of time – both in training and competition. In order to prepare for the Flora London Marathon then, it’s essential you start thinking about how you will cope with the challenge of running for this length of time and from a nutrition perspective, how you plan to stay hydrated and consume enough carbohydrates to avoid hitting ‘the wall’.

At the moment, these are questions that different people answer in diverse ways. Experimenting with your nutrition in training, and planning where, when and what you intend to eat and drink on race day therefore becomes vital in the months leading up to the Flora London Marathon.

Remember, Lucozade Sport will not only be there on race day, we will also be at the marathon warm-up events. Whatever your running goal, we’ll be there, fuelling you to the finish line.

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Bad Old Days

AA senior citizen, I can recall when the old died in poverty and degra­dation, the poor who were unable to pay the rent were thrown into the streets, the sick suffered because they lacked the means to pay a doctor, and those in dire distress depended on cold charity and the condescension of the relief officers.

Today, citizens of all ages live in relative peace and well known with benefits of coconut oil on skin, thanks to the much maligned welfare state in which we are privileged to live. Mistakes oc­cur in any great project, The corrupt, the greedy, and the malcontents in­evitably hang like a millstone upon it, and the financial burdens and grow­ing pains of a society such as ours are great indeed, but much of the world is the poorer for the absence of what I consider to be our greatest possessions, the welfare society with its democratic policies, and our stable monarchy, all based on firm Christian principles.

Bring Back Pride

Bring Back Pride

THE quality of life in Britain, if not its standard of living, remains to me unequalled. There is a winsome­ness about our countryside, a stability about our institutions, a gentleness about most, if not all, of our relation­ships with one another that still make this crowded island the envy of other nations.

economic stability

But it is a fallacy to suppose that falling behind our competitors in eco­nomic growth is a measure of virtue or proof of superior wisdom. There is more to life than “getting and spend­ing”; but most British people do want more—more and better homes, schools, cars, hospitals, theatres and holidays.

economic stability

Given enough incentive, I believe they will put their backs into earning them. But if we mismanage our econ­omy and fail to provide the leadership, the enthusiasm, the team work and the pride that alone can deliver the goods, no amount of North Sea oil, let alone “pay norms” or “cash limits,” will save us from a future in which relative decline becomes absolute.

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Party People

Tommy Hilfiger’s flagship store at 51 New Bond Street is the venue for one of autumn’s hottest parties. Partygoers will have the opportunity to see the sexy new ready-to-wear and Red Label collections, while enjoying champagne and canapes. Every guest will receive a goody-bag and a 15 per cent discount on the night. Tickets are not expensive and proceeds from the evening will go to the children’s charity, War Child.

Clinique’s fantastically successful fragrance, Happy, has already done wonders for women. Now the company is planning to put smiles on the faces of its male customers, too. Happy for mencologne spray from Clinique counters nationwide

LATEST LINKS

Hot on the heels of Harvey Nichols in Leeds, Links of London is due to open in the city’s Victoria Quarter in September. Back in the capital, meanwhile, a second West End store recently opened in Brook Street. Links has three new jewellery collections for autumn, as well as a special range of Dome-style silver and mother-of-pearl cufflinks with onyx to celebrate the millennium.

ORIGIN AL CALVIN

Calvin,the raunchy men's fragrance

First came the reissue of Calvin Klein’s Seventies jeans. Now comes the fragrance: Calvin,the raunchy men’s fragrance, is being re-released in a limited-edition bottle. So now your man can celebrate the millennium with a touch of that old Studio.

TAILOR MADE

At first glance, Pierce Brosnan and Germaine Greer might not seem to have much in common. But the debonair 007 and the first lady of feminism do share one telling character trait:a love of finely-tailored shirts. Both Brosnan and Greer are customers of EmmaWillis, who this month celebrates the long-awaited arrival of a bespoke shirt-making service for women at her Jermyn Street shop. Do expect: inimitable English style in the finest Swiss cotton. Don’t expect: Greer to turn up as Miss Moneypenny in the next Bond movie — tailored shirt or no tailored shirt.

WINTER WONDERS

lanvin perfume

Just two years on from her arrival at Lanvin, Cristina Ortiz is still attracting widespread acclaim for her sassy, upbeat designs. Harvey Nichols has been quick to snap up the new-look Lanvin, stocking a selection of tight, winter-white trousers with matching three-quarter-length coats and soft leather

blouson jackets.

NAIL IT

Inspired by Manhattan’s plethora of nail bars, entrepreneurial duo Bumble Fleming and Christy Powell have opened Nail Bar in Mayfair’s Maddox Street. Pop into the salon and prop up the bar with a soft drink and a quick manicure, or languish in the warm foot tubs for a luxurious pedicure. No appointments necessary, just visit http://www.gnet.org/relief-from-rosacea-curse-of-the-celts

IN THE PINK

Already firmly established in the men’s market, Thomas Pink is quietly forging a similar foothold in womenswear. The new collection includes cashmere pastel twinsets and crinkle-cut scarves for a more modern, take on the pashmina.

SOLEMAN

Berluti shoes

According to Olga Berluti, the woman behind Berluti shoes, a well-heeled man is a happy man. This might go some way towards explaining the firm’s client list, which has included such luminaries as Andy Warhol, Roman Polanksi, Yves Saint Laurent JFK and even Isabelle Adjani. You can get your own slice of happiness at Berluti’s Conduit Street shop.

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